Application procedures for current tree growth regulators (TGRs)
like Profile 2SC have been simplified but, as with any application,
the applicator is the key to success. Proper application
of Profile 2SC will ensure even distribution and uptake in the
treated tree. In addition, accurate tree identification, measurement
and precise dose determination are key to a successful treatment.
Without these basic skills, Profile 2SC may be improperly applied,
resulting in little or no response or over-regulated trees that
may develop small leaves and exhibit little or no growth.
Once a trained and competent applicator is familiar with the
process for properly utilizing Profile 2SC, application via
soil injection will prove to be a quick and easy, typically
three- to five-minute procedure per tree requiring the following
- Identify the tree and measure it properly.
- Properly dilute Profile 2SC to make the standard treatment
solution. Follow label and rate card instructions.
- Determine dose in total milliliters required for the application
rate and tree size based on diameter-at-breast-height (dbh).
Then measure the treatment solution properly.
- Apply the mixture with the proper application equipment.
Depending on factors such as environmental conditions, the
location, number and proximity of trees to be treated and your
treatment budget, you can currently choose between two equally
effective methods of applying Profile 2SC (the third alternative
will be available in the near future);
Each method is covered in detail below. Before applying, however,
the correct rate and dosage needs to be determined with tree
identification and measurement, location, crown volume, soil
type and the tree's final ideal appearance.
- Basal soil drench
- Soil injection
- New tree microinjection technology currently under development
Tree Identification and Measurement
It is important that applicators are familiar with the tree
species in their region that will be treated. A thorough knowledge
of tree identification and aboriculture will help an applicator
to determine whether or not a tree can be treated with Profile
2SC and how much of the product is necessary. After an accurate
identification and measurement, the Profile 2SC species/rate
card will indicate the dosage required for an effective treatment.
It is important to note that while treatment of some trees is
prohibited by the product label, other tree species may be unlisted
but not prohibited. These trees can be treated by using rates
for similar species and following all other label directions.
For the purpose of application with Profile 2SC, the diameter
of a tree is measured 4 ½-feet above the ground and is
termed the "diameter at breast height," or dbh. A proper measurement
can be accomplished in a few simple steps. Next, using a dbh
tape measure, wrap the tape around the girth of the tree being
careful not to twist the tape. Be sure to use the dbh side -
not the inches side that would give you a measure of circumference
instead of diameter - and start your measurement at the tape
index mark to get a correct assessment of the tree's diameter.
A variety of unique situations may arise that will require
some measuring ingenuity. For example, be sure to stand on the
upslope side of the tree if you're on an incline. If the tree
is growing at an angle, measure at a right angle to the
lean of the trunk. When swellings, bumps or branches occur at
breast height, the diameter should be measured at an equal distance
above and below 4 ½ feet and the two measurements averaged.
For trees with multiple stems at breast height, add up the measurements
of each stem and compare the total to the measurement below
the fork. Base the application rate on the lesser dbh measurement.
Finally, for a large tree with a dbh greater than those listed
on the rate card, simply double the rate for a tree half its
size. For example, treat a tree measuring 40 dbh at twice the
label rate for a 20-dbh tree.
In preparation for application, determine the tree species. Then, an accurate measurement of the diameter at breast height (dbh) is necessary in selecting the appropriate rate of Profile 2SC.
SePRO's two-sided Profile 2SC rate cards feature mixing instructions
on one side and rate guidelines on the other. Rate cards must
be customized for particular geographic regions to account for
different tree species and soil types. You can get a customized
rate card by contacting a SePRO representative.
The rate card will help you determine the correct dose based
on the tree's species, dbh, location, crown volume, soil type
and its final ideal appearance. Once you've established the
correct dose, it's time to properly measure and mix the treatment
solution. It's important to always shake the container first
to ensure that the contents are thoroughly mixed. If you wish
to mix a small batch, mix 317 milliliters of Profile 2SC with
enough water to produce one gallon of ready-to-use solution.
A larger batch of 12 gallons can be produced by mixing one gallon
of Profile 2SC with 11 gallons of water.
The addition of a suspension aide to the mixed treatment solution
is strongly recommended as it will make applying Profile 2SC
even easier. It will reduce hard packing at the bottom of the
tank and lessen the amount of agitation required to keep the
solution in suspension. A suspension aide is particularly recommended
with larger quantities or if the solution may sit for a period
of time since the solution with the additive can easily be resuspended
by agitation. Add the suspension aide at a rate of ¼-
to ½% to half of the total water needed and stir (check
the adjuvant label for the proper mixing sequence). Be sure
to accurately measure the additive since too much can make the
solution too viscous. Add the Profile 2SC and the remaining
water. At this point, a ¼% high quality non-ionic organosilicate
surfactant may also be added to the solution. It will lower
the surface tension of the solution for applications to medium
texture and heavy clay soils. This surfactant addition can improve
product efficacy, especially in heavier soils as it will aid
uptake by spreading the solution further through the soil to
the tree's roots.
Application Methods and Equipment
Customized Rate Cards for your region are available by contacting your SePRO representative.
Basal drench, also called soil drench, is a relatively simple
and easy application procedure that does not require specialized
equipment. A trench is dug completely around the base of the
tree at the point of contact between the soil and the tree trunk,
approximately 2 to 3 inches deep and 3 to 4 inches wide. An
application device that provides a controlled rate of flow may
be used, if desired, or simply a container with a graduated
measurement scale. The recommended dosage of Profile 2SC is
uniformly poured around the base of the tree onto the tree trunk/soil
interface and allowed to run down the interface until it is
absorbed into the soil. After the product is fully absorbed,
the excavated soil is returned to the trench. For trees growing
on a slope, segment the trench with "dams" to prevent
the applied product from pooling in lower areas of the trench
or opt for a soil injection application.
Basal Drench Method
With soil injection, Profile 2SC should be injected into the
soil with specialized injection equipment at approximately 150
psi. Apply 6 inches below the soil surface in 250 ml aliquots
uniformly around the tree (or as directed by the rate card)
within 8 inches of the base of the tree for most medium and
large size trees. Injection orifices should be oriented to release
the diluted product horizontally at the point of injection.
The required dose should be divided evenly among injection sites
spaced as uniformly as possible around the tree trunk. The injection
sites should be positioned to release the diluted Profile 2SC
mixture as close as possible to the point of contact between
the soil and the unthickened bark beneath the soil so that the
active ingredient may be readily absorbed by the tree. For example,
after the solution is injected into the soil, it is absorbed
through the less suberized roots just below the soil line. Here
the bark is more permeable to Profile due to a thinner cork
layer. In addition, breaks in the outer root tissue created
by normal growth processes provide pathways to the xylem.
Injection sites should also be located next to buttress roots.
For trees less than six inches dbh, use at least four evenly
spaced injection sites per tree.
Soil injection of Profile 2SC requires specialized injection
equipment that has been designed and tested to deliver the solution
as described above. Training is necessary to operate the injector
and accompanying metric flowmeter properly. Whenever the injector
is used, the flowmeter needs to be calibrated to make sure it's
in range. To check equipment calibration, inject eight shots
of 250 ml into a container. Then check the applied volume with
a graduated cylinder. The injected volume should be within 5-8%
of 2000 ml. If the flowmeter is off more than 8% of 2000 ml
(160 ml), return it to Dill for calibration. Check the flowmeter
three times per week or even daily with heavy use. Keep in mind
that operating a soil injector is not like pumping gas. The
solution must be flowing wide open to allow the flowmeter to
get an accurate measurement. Don't start and stop the injector
as you reach the desired cutoff amount. If you're a little over
or under on one injector site, make up for it on the next one.
An innovative soil injector now offered exclusively by SePRO
Corporation is substantially lighter and more durable than previous
units and features a flared probe to reduce blow back. It also
features a detachable hand grip that makes application on trees
with low hanging branches much easier as well as offering the
opportunity to make foliar spray applications with the supplied
interchangeable nozzles. This new unit is delivered as a ready-to-use,
turnkey injector that will quickly get you in the business of
soil injection. For more information, contact your SePRO representative.
Tree microinjection will offer the ability to treat trees where
soil treatments are not practical. Although currently under
development, recent advancements in technology have led to significant
improvements in this application method verses previous tree
microinjection options. The new system combines advances in
chemistry development with a highly portable, convenient, all-in-one
unit that delivers ultra low dose applications without the need
to drill holes. When this new technology is complete, the Profile
2SC website will be updated with all relevant information.
Choosing an Application Method
Environmental conditions, location limitations, budget and
equipment availability will determine which application method
to choose. In general, one application method offers no major
treatment advantage over the other although you can treat more
trees per day using soil injection for higher productivity.
Whatever method is employed, it usually only takes one applicator
with proper training to treat a tree.
Soil injection places the Profile 2SC mixture close to the
roots, prevents runoff and aids in dispersing the product. It's
the quickest, easiest and most popular application method when
many trees in close proximity are to be treated and when treating
a large number of trees. A skilled applicator usually can treat
2 to 3 times the number of trees using soil injection versus
a basal drench application.
Basal drench usually offers the most uniform tree regulation
since it is applied evenly around the base of the tree, versus
spot application with soil injection. Also, basal drench requires
no extra equipment and is ideal where trees are not relatively
close together and in remote settings. It is a very effective
choice when a limited number of trees are to be treated or when
using soil injection equipment becomes impractical. Due to the
simplicity of a basal drench application, an experienced and
trained crew or tree professional already on site performing
other tree-related functions could easily perform this procedure.
Basal drench applications should be avoided on hilly terrain
where the solution cannot be contained in the trench or may
be unevenly applied. Also avoid using basal drench in other
areas where the Profile 2SC mixture may be washed away from
the base of the treated tree by rainfall or irrigation. If conditions
exist that make basal-drench applications impractical such as
steep slopes, surface-soil compaction, thick thatch or root
matting, then soil injection may be considered. Soil injection
may also be the application of choice in areas such as fine
turf where trenching is not practical for aesthetic reasons.
Heavy clay soils, acidic soils and soils with high organic
matter are more binding and will lead to reduced uptake. These
soils shorten the length of time growth reduction occurs and
require higher application rates. Sandy soils, on the other
hand, allow for quick uptake of Profile 2SC into the tree and
will increase the length of time growth reduction occurs. Lower
application rates may be necessary with sandy soils. Finally,
soil type will affect your treatment method as well. For example,
compacted soils that make digging and injection difficult may
require tree microinjection in lieu of a soil treatment.
Timing of Application and Trimming
Profile 2SC applications can be made throughout the year, weather
permitting, except when the soil is frozen or saturated with
water. However, Profile 2SC will be absorbed by a tree's roots
and travel to the crown only during periods of active transpiration.
So when Profile 2SC is applied early during a tree's active
growth period, regulation effects may be evident that growing
season. Most trees complete a majority of their growth six to
eight weeks after the leaves have formed. Conversely, if applications
are made after fall leaf drop, little uptake of Profile 2SC
will occur until bud break in the spring.
Caring for trees can require frequent and costly pruning which,
when a tree is in a hazardous location such as under power lines,
can be dangerous. Pruning usually takes place less often with
the use of a TGR and, for utilities, can decrease tree related
outages. It's important to understand that the use of Profile
2SC will not replace pruning as it doesn't stop growth
in treated trees. Profile 2SC slows growth, allowing
for easier and less pruning. You'll see the
most immediate benefits on fast-growing trees that are costly
to trim. Profile 2SC is also ideal to control the "hot spots"
or "cycle busters"along power lines and in locations where minimal
intrusion on owners' property is desired.
Idealy treatment should occur before or at the time of trimming
during the growing season. Trimming signals the tree to grow
and can encourage uptake of Profile 2SC.
If it is necessary to apply during a tree's dormant season,
delay trimming until the active growth period in the spring
for optimal transpiration and product uptake.
No matter when Profile 2SC is applied, trees may not exhibit
visual regulation signs for up to one growing season after treatment.
This gives you the flexibility to treat and trim or trim and
treat during the same season or following season. When making
trimming decisions, keep the following two factors in mind:
Trees to Avoid
- Efficacy-When timing treatments for best efficacy, you should
trim the trees one to three months following application.
This allows the existing leaves time to pull the growth regulator
to the crown during periods of active transpiration before
you trim, thus reducing some of the resurgent growth. However,
you should not consider all growth bad. Some growth is helpful
in reducing sun scald on susceptible species.
- Aesthetics-You may want the trees to look visually pleasing.
When timing treatments for aesthetics, trim and treat at approximately
the same time. This scenario removes leaves necessary to pull
the product to the growing points. So, regrowth is initially
not inhibited, allowing the tree normal growth before regulation
Tree species, diameter and crown size figure into the decision
of whether a tree should be treated with Profile 2SC. Generally,
only healthy trees that are well established in their final
location with trunks measuring at least 4 inches dbh are good
candidates. However, smaller trees that are nearing utility
lines and trees on fencerows can be treated. Trees not used
for food production that are not specifically listed on the
product label may be treated if all other directions are followed.
Research shows that trees treated with Profile 2SC may have
a better ability to survive fungal diseases and to withstand
environmental stresses like drought, pollution and temperature
extremes. From this work, it appears that by reducing tree stress,
Profile 2SC may give a tree greater ability to withstand these
Nevertheless, there are a variety of conditions that make trees
bad candidates for treatment with Profile 2SC. A TGR treatment
may not help every tree in decline. If a tree is in an advanced
state of decline, it's best not to apply Profile 2SC as the
treatment - or any other endeavor such as trimming - may be
the action that pushes the tree over the edge. In general, do
not apply Profile 2SC to trees in poor overall condition. Trees
that are severely stressed due to moisture, temperature, low
soil fertility, or mechanical or chemical injury should not
be treated. In addition, trees exhibiting the following characteristics
should not be treated:
- Premature leaf drop
- Leaf discoloration
- Trees with large wounds or open cavities
- Lightning strikes
- Dead portions of crown
- Evidence of disease
- Trees that are or will be tapped for sugar
- Fruit or nut trees to be used as food within one year of
- Trees in areas with low rainfall that are not irrigated
may not get regulated due to the lack of transpiration and
Profile 2SC should not be reapplied until symptoms from previous
applications have begun to subside. Length of control may last
anywhere from two to eight years, but will vary based on tree
size, health, species and location as well as trimming activity,
soil type, climate and the timing and dosage of the previous
When a tree's growth is actively being controlled, there will
be diminished stem elongation during the growing season, newly-developed
leaf internodes will be closer together on the branch, or "stacked,"
and new leaves may be smaller and darker. Before retreating,
examine the tree for visible evidence that the previous treatment
is wearing off.
Look for the aforementioned effects to gradually wear off with
each growing season. If the degree of stem elongation is increased,
the leaf internodes are developing farther apart and/or the
newest leaves are larger and lighter in color, retreatment may
The best perspective to observe the visual results of Profile
2SC to determine retreatment is at the top of the crown, where
the newest growth occurs and product uptake is most extreme.
If Profile 2SC no longer appears to be active in reducing growth
and the tree is in good health, re-treat the tree at the same
rate as the original application.
Accurate record keeping is of extreme importance in any good
tree management program. Not only do regulatory agencies require
you to maintain data on every tree you treat, but your business
will benefit from keeping detailed records. By utilizing SePRO's
Profile 2SC Application Log Sheets, you'll track data that will
help you determine the efficacy of your treatments and you'll
create a resource that will help guide your future course of
action with each tree you treat.
Soil Injection Method
The log sheets, available from your SePRO representative or
by printing out the Log Sheet, will help you
keep track of each tree's location, species, dbh, treatment
method, rate, date of application, health, etc. Over time, you
can track growth reductions, how long trim cycles are extended,
and the cost savings of controlling the frequency of cutting
and pruning with Profile 2SC.
General Use Precautions
- Apply at recommended rates and follow safety procedures.
- Trees not used for food production that are not specifically
listed on the product label may be treated if all other directions
- Trees that are severely stressed due to moisture, temperature,
low soil fertility, or mechanical or chemical injury should
not be treated.
- Do not reapply Profile 2SC until symptoms from previous
applications begin to subside.
- Basal drench and soil injection application of Profile
2SC may result in localized, temporary discoloration of turfgrass
immediately adjacent to the treatment site.
- Avoid basal drench applications on slopes or other areas
where Profile 2SC or treated soil may be washed away from
the base of the tree by rainfall or irrigation.
- Treatment of trees bordered by shrubs and/or herbaceous
ornamentals may cause these plants to be affected of their
roots extend into the treatment zone.
- Do not treat sugar maple trees or any other trees that are
or could be tapped for sugar.
- Do not treat nut or fruit trees that will be harvested within
- Do not apply Profile 2SC through any type of irrigation
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